Control characters - ASCII Table

MAME 0.221

MAME 0.221

Our fourth release of the year, MAME 0.221, is now ready. There are lots of interesting changes this time. We’ll start with some of the additions. There’s another load of TV games from JAKKS Pacific, Senario, Tech2Go and others. We’ve added another Panorama Screen Game & Watch title: this one features the lovable comic strip canine Snoopy. On the arcade side, we’ve got Great Bishi Bashi Champ and Anime Champ (both from Konami), Goori Goori (Unico), the prototype Galun.Pa! (Capcom CPS), a censored German version of Gun.Smoke, a Japanese location test version of DoDonPachi Dai-Ou-Jou, and more bootlegs of Cadillacs and Dinosaurs, Final Fight, Galaxian, Pang! 3 and Warriors of Fate.
In computer emulation, we’re proud to present another working UNIX workstation: the MIPS R3000 version of Sony’s NEWS family. NEWS was never widespread outside Japan, so it’s very exciting to see this running. F.Ulivi has added support for the Swedish/Finnish and German versions of the HP 86B, and added two service ROMs to the software list. ICEknight contributed a cassette software list for the Timex NTSC variants of the Sinclair home computers. There are some nice emulation improvements for the Luxor ABC family of computers, with the ABC 802 now considered working.
Other additions include discrete audio emulation for Midway’s Gun Fight, voice output for Filetto, support for configurable Toshiba Pasopia PAC2 slot devices, more vgmplay features, and lots more Capcom CPS mappers implemented according to equations from dumped PALs. This release also cleans up and simplifies ROM loading. For the most part things should work as well as or better than they did before, but MAME will no longer find loose CHD files in top-level media directories. This is intentional – it’s unwieldy with the number of supported systems.
As usual, you can get the source and 64-bit Windows binary packages from the download page. This will be the last month where we use this format for the release notes – with the increase in monthly development activity, it’s becoming impractical to keep up.

MAME Testers Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to emulation [link] [comments]

MAME 0.221

MAME 0.221

Our fourth release of the year, MAME 0.221, is now ready. There are lots of interesting changes this time. We’ll start with some of the additions. There’s another load of TV games from JAKKS Pacific, Senario, Tech2Go and others. We’ve added another Panorama Screen Game & Watch title: this one features the lovable comic strip canine Snoopy. On the arcade side, we’ve got Great Bishi Bashi Champ and Anime Champ (both from Konami), Goori Goori (Unico), the prototype Galun.Pa! (Capcom CPS), a censored German version of Gun.Smoke, a Japanese location test version of DoDonPachi Dai-Ou-Jou, and more bootlegs of Cadillacs and Dinosaurs, Final Fight, Galaxian, Pang! 3 and Warriors of Fate.
In computer emulation, we’re proud to present another working UNIX workstation: the MIPS R3000 version of Sony’s NEWS family. NEWS was never widespread outside Japan, so it’s very exciting to see this running. F.Ulivi has added support for the Swedish/Finnish and German versions of the HP 86B, and added two service ROMs to the software list. ICEknight contributed a cassette software list for the Timex NTSC variants of the Sinclair home computers. There are some nice emulation improvements for the Luxor ABC family of computers, with the ABC 802 now considered working.
Other additions include discrete audio emulation for Midway’s Gun Fight, voice output for Filetto, support for configurable Toshiba Pasopia PAC2 slot devices, more vgmplay features, and lots more Capcom CPS mappers implemented according to equations from dumped PALs. This release also cleans up and simplifies ROM loading. For the most part things should work as well as or better than they did before, but MAME will no longer find loose CHD files in top-level media directories. This is intentional – it’s unwieldy with the number of supported systems.
As usual, you can get the source and 64-bit Windows binary packages from the download page. This will be the last month where we use this format for the release notes – with the increase in monthly development activity, it’s becoming impractical to keep up.

MAME Testers Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to MAME [link] [comments]

Ambrosia and Registration

Now that Ambrosia is gone, new registrations are no longer possible, and due to their expiring codes, using legitimate license keys has become difficult. We may hope to see a few of their games revived in the future but at present, only the original releases are available. Perhaps this case study on Ambrosia's registration algorithms will be useful to some.

The Old System

In their earliest days, ASW didn't require registration, but they eventually began locking core features away behind codes. All of their classic titles use the original algorithm by Andrew Welch.
Given a licensee name, number of copies, and game name, the code generator runs through two loops. The first loop iterates over each letter of the capitalized licensee name, adding the ASCII representation of that letter with the number of copies and then rotating the resulting bits. The second loop repeats that operation, only using the game's name instead of the license holder's name.
Beginning with Mars Rising, later games added a step to these loops: XOR the current code with the common hex string $DEADBEEF. However, the rest of the algorithm remained essentially unchanged.
The resulting 32 bits are converted into a text registration code by adding the ASCII offset of $41 to each hex digit. This maps the 32-bit string into 8 characters, but due to the limit of a hex digit to only encode 16 values, codes only contain letters from the first 16 of the alphabet.
The following chart shows an example using a well-known hacked code for Slithereens.
 Iteration 1 ('A' in ANONYMOUS) Name: Anonymous Code = $0 + $41 Number: 100 (hex: $64) -> << 6 ... -> Code = $FD53 FFA0 Game: Slithereens + $64 ^ $DEAD BEEF >> 1 Add $41 to each digit: Registration -> $41 + $F = $50 = P -> Reverse string -> ------------ $41 + $D = $4E = N | AKPPDFNP | ... ------------ 
Here is a Python implementation of the v1 system: aswreg_v1.py
Once you have the bitstring module installed via sudo pip install bitstring, you can test the output yourself with python aswreg_v1.py "Anonymous" 100 "Slithereens".

The New System

As Ambrosia's Matt Slot explains, the old system continued to allow a lot of piracy, so in the early 2000's they decided to switch to a more challenging registration system. This new method was based on polynomial hashing and included a timestamp so that codes could be expired and renewed. Ambrosia now had better control over code distribution, but they assumed their renewal server would never be shut down...
They also took more aggressive steps to reduce key sharing. The registration app checks against a list of blacklisted codes, and if found to be using one, the number of licenses is internally perturbed so that subsequent calculations fail. To combat tampering, your own information can get locally blacklisted in a similar manner if too many failed attempts occur, at least until the license file is deleted. Furthermore, the app attempts to verify the system time via a remote time server to minimize registration by changing the computer's clock.
You can disable the internet connection, set the clock back, and enter codes. There's also a renewal bot for EV: Nova. But let us look at the algorithm more closely.

64-bit Codes

The first noticeable difference is that registration codes in v2 are now 12 digits, containing both letters and numbers. This is due to a move from a 32-bit internal code to a 64-bit one. Rather than add an ASCII offset to hex digits, every letter or number in a new registration code has a direct mapping to a chunk of 5 bits. Using 5 bits per digit supports up to 32 values, or almost all letters of the alphabet and digits up to 9 (O, I, 0, and 1 were excluded given their visual similarities).
The resulting 64 bits (really only 60 because the upper 4 are unused: 12 digits * 5 bits each = 60) are a combination of two other hashes XOR'd together. This is a notable change from v1 because it only used the registration code to verify against the hashing algorithm. Only the licensee name, number of copies, and game name were really used. In v2, the registration code is itself a hash which contains important information like a code's timestamp.

Two Hashes

To extract such information from the registration code, we must reverse the XOR operation and split out the two hashes which were combined. Fortunately, XOR is reversible, and we can compute one of the hashes. The first hash, which I'll call the userkey, is actually quite similar to v1's algorithm. It loops through the licensee name, adding the ASCII value, number of copies, and shifting bits. This is repeated with the game name. An important change is including multiplication by a factor based on the string size.
The second hash, which I'll call the basekey, is the secret sauce of v2; it's what you pay Ambrosia to generate when registering a product. It is not computed by the registration app, but there are several properties by which it must be validated.
The chart below visualizes the relationships among the various hashes, using the well-known "Barbara Kloeppel" code for EV: Nova.
 TEXTCODE: ------------------ | L4B5-9HJ5-P3NB | ------------------ HASH1 (userkey): | calculated from licensee name, | copies, and game name BINCODE: ---------------------- 5 bits per character, /-> | 0x0902f8932acce305 | plus factors & rotation / ---------------------- ---------------------- / | 0x0008ecc1c2ee5e00 | <-- XOR ---------------------- \ \ ---------------------- \-> | 0x090a1452e822bd05 | ---------------------- HASH2 (basekey): generated by Ambrosia, extracted via XOR 

The Basekey

The basekey is where we must handle timestamps and several validation checks. Consider the binary representation of the sample 0x090a1452e822bd05:
binary basekey (above) and indices for reference (below): 0000 1001 0000 1010 0001 0100 0101 0010 1110 1000 0010 0010 1011 1101 0000 0101 b0 b3 b7 b11 b15 b19 b23 b27 b31 b35 b39 b43 b47 b51 b55 b59 b63 

Timestamps

Timestamp are encoded as a single byte comprised of bits indexed at b56,51,42,37,28,23,14,9 from the basekey. In this example, the timestamp is 01100010 or 0x62 or 98.
The timestamp represents the number of fortnights that have passed since Christmas Day, 2000 Eastern time, modulo 256 to fit in one byte. For example, 98 fortnights places the code at approximately October 2004.
Stored as a single byte, there are 256 unique timestamps. This is 512 weeks or about 10 years. Yes, this means that a code's validity rotates approximately once every decade.
After the code's timestamp is read, it is subtracted from the current timestamp (generated from the system clock or network time server if available). The difference must be less than 2, so codes are valid for 4 weeks or about a month at a time.
Of note, Pillars of Garendall has a bug in which the modulo is not taken correctly, so the timestamp corresponding to 0xFF is valid without expiry.

Validity Check

The last three bits, b60-63, contain the sum of all other 3-bit chunks in the basekey, modulo 7. Without the correct number in these bits, the result will be considered invalid.
To this point, we have covered sufficient material to renew licenses. The timestamp can be changed, the last three bits updated, the result XOR'd with the userkey, and finally, the code converted from binary to text.

Factors for Basekey Generation

I was next curious about code generation. For the purposes of this write-up, I have not fully reverse engineered the basekey, only duplicated the aspects which are used for validation. This yields functional keys, just not genuine ones. If the authors of the EV: Nova renewal bot have fully reversed the algorithm, perhaps they will one day share the steps to genuine basekey creation.
One aspect validated by the registration app is that the licensee name, number, and game name can be modified to yield a set of base factors. These are then multiplied by some number and written into the basekey. We do not need the whole algorithm; we simply must check that the corresponding regions in the basekey are multiples of the appropriate factors.
The regions of note in the basekey are f1 = b5-9,47-51,33-37,19-23, f2 = b43-47,29-33,15-19,57-61, and f3 = b24-28,10-14,52-56,38-42. The top 5 bits and f3 are never actually checked, so they can be ignored.
Considering f1 and f2, the values in the sample basekey are 0x25DA and 0x1500, respectively. The base factors are 0x26 and 0x1C, which are multiples by 0xFF and 0xC0, respectively.
Rather than analyze the code in detail, I wrote a small script to translate over the disassembled PPC to Python wholesale. It is sufficient for generating keys to EV: Nova, using the perfectly-valid multiple of 1x, but I have found it fails for other v2 products.

Scripts

Here is a Python implementation for v2: aswreg_v2.py and aswreg_v2core.py
With bitstring installed, you can renew codes like python aswreg_v2.py renew "L4B5-9HJ5-P3NB" "Barbara Kloeppel" 1 "EV Nova" (just sample syntax, blacklisted codes will still fail in the app). There's also a function to check a code's timestamp with date or create a new license with generate.
As earlier cautioned, generating basekeys relies on code copied from disassembled PPC and will likely not work outside EV: Nova. In my tests with other v2 products, all essential parts of the algorithm remain the same, even the regions of the basekey which are checked as multiples of the factors. What differs is the actual calculation of base factors. Recall that these keys were created by Ambrosia outside the local registration system, so the only options are to copy the necessary chunks of code to make passable factors for each product or to fully reverse engineer the basekey algorithm. I've no doubt the factors are an easy computation once you know the algorithm, but code generation becomes less critical when renewal is an option for other games. I leave it to the authors of the Zeus renewal bot if they know how to find these factors more generally.
To renew codes for other games, keep in mind the name must be correct. For instance, Pillars of Garendall is called "Garendall" internally. You can find a game's name by typing a gibberish license in the registration app and seeing what file is created in Preferences. It should be of the form License.
Finally, a couple disclaimers: I have only tested with a handful of keys, so my interpretations and implementations may not be completely correct. YMMV. Furthermore, these code snippets are posted as an interesting case study about how a defunct company once chose to combat software piracy, not to promote piracy. Had Ambrosia remained operational, I'm sure we would have seen a v3 registration system or a move to online-based play as so many other games are doing today, but I hope this has been helpful for those who still wish to revisit their favorite Ambrosia classics.
submitted by asw_anon to evnova [link] [comments]

MAME 0.221

MAME 0.221

Our fourth release of the year, MAME 0.221, is now ready. There are lots of interesting changes this time. We’ll start with some of the additions. There’s another load of TV games from JAKKS Pacific, Senario, Tech2Go and others. We’ve added another Panorama Screen Game & Watch title: this one features the lovable comic strip canine Snoopy. On the arcade side, we’ve got Great Bishi Bashi Champ and Anime Champ (both from Konami), Goori Goori (Unico), the prototype Galun.Pa! (Capcom CPS), a censored German version of Gun.Smoke, a Japanese location test version of DoDonPachi Dai-Ou-Jou, and more bootlegs of Cadillacs and Dinosaurs, Final Fight, Galaxian, Pang! 3 and Warriors of Fate.
In computer emulation, we’re proud to present another working UNIX workstation: the MIPS R3000 version of Sony’s NEWS family. NEWS was never widespread outside Japan, so it’s very exciting to see this running. F.Ulivi has added support for the Swedish/Finnish and German versions of the HP 86B, and added two service ROMs to the software list. ICEknight contributed a cassette software list for the Timex NTSC variants of the Sinclair home computers. There are some nice emulation improvements for the Luxor ABC family of computers, with the ABC 802 now considered working.
Other additions include discrete audio emulation for Midway’s Gun Fight, voice output for Filetto, support for configurable Toshiba Pasopia PAC2 slot devices, more vgmplay features, and lots more Capcom CPS mappers implemented according to equations from dumped PALs. This release also cleans up and simplifies ROM loading. For the most part things should work as well as or better than they did before, but MAME will no longer find loose CHD files in top-level media directories. This is intentional – it’s unwieldy with the number of supported systems.
As usual, you can get the source and 64-bit Windows binary packages from the download page. This will be the last month where we use this format for the release notes – with the increase in monthly development activity, it’s becoming impractical to keep up.

MAME Testers Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to cade [link] [comments]

Long write up of revelation cipher findings after a weeks worth of work.

So I just got on break last weekend and I've had a craving to work on these ciphers. I’ve literally been in my house staring at these texts for about a week straight. Instead on just trying a bunch of dead end ideas though, I decided to really look at what is going on with these ciphers (specifically the hex based ciphers).
 
The first obvious thing to note is that the hex does not convert to text cleanly. Why is this? The binary is the answer. Here's a quick explanation of binary and hex for those who are not familiar (You can skip this if you have a solid understanding of hex and binary). Hex is just numbers in base 16 form. So the hex counting system goes '0123456789abcdef'. After ‘f’, you have 10. Then you count up from 11, 12 13… up to 1f and then you go to 20, and so on. In terms of text, the computer will break a long string of hex up into blocks of two, and then will essentially search for that number in a catalog which will tell the computer which text character to display. For example ’41’ in hex, is the text character 'A'. You can find a chart of all letters online. So now, take the first hex block of the sams_book cipher, ‘8e'. 8e is out of the range that readable characters exist in the computers text catalog, so lets look deeper. In binary this would read as >10001110 with the '8' representing the first four 1's and 0's (bits), and the 'e' representing the last four bits. If we changed the 1st bit ,so now >00001110 we would now have '0e'. When normally converting hex code to readable text, every 2 hex characters = 1 readable character (normal readable characters are called ASCII). This is because while hex only needs 4 binary bits to be represented, ASCII needs 8. so 4+4 =8. For example the hex block ’41’ (0100 0001 in binary) is the ASCII character 'A' (01000001 in binary). Hopefully this is clear because the rest of this will rely heavily on that.
 
So again, the hex does not convert because of the binary. Every readable ASCII character (except punctuation) follows a binary pattern of 01xxxxxx. However, this is what the first 5 hex blocks of sams_book look like in binary:
10001100 10010111 10001110 01011110 00111110
So what becomes obvious very quickly is that the binary is not following the binary needed for ASCII. Just to exemplify this, heres the word 'maxis' in binary.
01101101 01100001 01111000 01101001 01110011
 
As you can see, all the binary blocks start with 01, followed by some more binary. So we then have to ask our selves how is the cipher binary being manipulated. If every binary block began with say ’10’, we could just assume the binary needs to be inverted, but this is not case. I've looked for reversal patterns, shifting left or right patterns, transposition patterns, but sadly I have not found any notable pattern (this is not to say there isn't one, but it may be very hard to find). Even if every other binary block needed to be reversed, we would still see a pattern that every odd block begins with 0. But after long hours of staring at the binary, there is no obvious patterns.
 
I then began wondering, how could the binary be manipulated in such a way with no pattern left behind. This led me to believe that maybe each hex letter is being rotated differently, much like a vigenere cipher. So I began looking at the distribution of leading hex block numbers and leading binary bits. Ive done my own charting and everything, but basically in a normal text block converted to hex, most of the starting numbers in each hex block are going to be either 6 or 7 because these represent a lowercase letter (for example 6d = “m”.) You can test this for yourself by converting any paragraph to hex and looking at every other number. There is some 2, 3, 4, and 5 starting letters as well, but a significantly lower amount, and little to none that start with 8-f. In our cipher texts, there is almost an even distribution of starting characters 0-f. I just can not think of another method that would give us such a flat distribution of starting characters than a different rotation on each hexbit. Say we had to just add 3 to every hex block (caesar cipher), our distribution of first values would not actually change but rather just shift 3 numbers down. Manipulating binary numbers could have this effect, but Its fairly safe to say there isn’t just a simple binary shift/ transposition either because we have hex blocks like ‘ff’ which in binary is 11111111, nullifying a simple transposition pattern being the answer (Remember, we need the block to start with 01, no zero in this case). I personally believe the answer is a combination of the binary manipulation and keyword rotation but I will elaborate why later.
 
Next, I programmed a python script that would basically shift the first hex block until it returned a readable ASCII character. So 8c (Hex gibberish) -> to 41 (“A” in hex) would be a 12 shift (8->4) then 5 shift (c->1) meaning the key word would start with 'le' (L being the 12th letter of the alphabet and E being the 5th). Once it found a readable ascii character it would then run the keyword (12 5, in this case 'le) over the whole cipher text. While this wouldn’t return clear text (unless the keyword was only 2 letters long), what it would do is show that the cipher text needed to be rotated if there was a pattern of an ascii character every n spaces. Conveniently this would also reveal the length of the keyword.
NOTE: This method is essentially the same as adding every number in the range of 0-255 to each byte and when the value exceeds 255, go back to 0 and add the remainder.
 
Heres an example of that since that might be confusing to read.
Take this wizard of oz text
“Dorothy lived in the midst of the great Kansas prairies, with Uncle Henry, who was a farmer, and Aunt Em, who was the farmers's wife. Their house was small, for the lumber to build it had to be carried by wagon many miles. “
Then convert it to hex
446f726f746879206c6976656420696e20746865206d69647374206f6620746865206772656174204b616e7361732070726169726965732c207769746820556e636c652048656e72792c2077686f207761732061206661726d65722c20616e642041756e7420456d2c2077686f2077617320746865206661726d657273277320776966652e20546865697220686f7573652077617320736d616c6c2c20666f7220746865206c756d62657220746f206275696c642069742068616420746f2062652063617272696564206279207761676f6e206d616e79206d696c65732e
Now shifting the hex with the keyword “richtofen”
5c86a0b345eaec05a9719d93b8f1ebd105b1708c5eb13ae6e6596d778d5ec839e7934cbf7d88a2741ce3d158ae8b47aec632ebe54ea28b435ecb3af6db0592768a9ab9f1cad843bf81435ecb39e1935cae8b479f7437e3e542a28a435eb53fe69326b2769b5e993eae935ca57747a5b544a2e74da2388d9fc63ee7e558648b47a5bd37e7910591708c97c6f1ead25ab07d47a5b544a2e642ae74835a7437e1e505b1708c5eb046efd54abf389b9d7433f7dc41a13880a27439e3d705b1774790b9f1e5d457bf718c927433fb935cae7f869c743ee3d15e6d75809ab944a0
And now we have some jumbled hex. However if we then counter rotated the hex with “ri” as our keyword, convert to ASCII (unreadable characters represented as a dash), and finally find where theres a pattern of ascii characters, it would look like this.
D---=----i--------htF-"[email protected]?--*--6-s;F-"----nr-----;-y;F-!--D-s?-l/--:-r;F-'----n-F-&--D-o?--<--5- [email protected]\s?--/----ht-----B-e?--<--:-l-Bl/----htF->--2- --l+--9- x-l!——o?——O-it-l+--D-g--l&--FUmx--<-
ASCII PATTERN: 9 steps 18 steps
So we would get a regular character every 9 spaces which also happens to be the length of the word richtofen. While it would not be easy to actually identify the keyword, we would atleast know this is the right step. However…
 
None of the hex ciphers return any ASCII pattern meaning the hex is not just vigenere ciphered (atleast at this step or atleast to direct text). But despite that I firmly believe the text is rotated at some point in such a manner again because of the distribution. I just honestly can’t imagine how else the data could be so jumbled.
 
Another common hex/binary manipulation is XOR with a keyword. XOR is a bitwise operation that basically compares two binary bits and makes them 0 if they are the same, or 1 if they are different. I had originally tried brute forcing XOR to find readable text, but I realized this was actually not necessary. By looking at the binary we know the cipher couldn't have been XOR'd (atleast at this step) because otherwise we would still always have a 0 in the first bit position (This is assuming that it is XOR'd with common text and not more crazy hex). This is because since all readable characters start with 0, the XOR would compare the values of the first bits of the plaint text and key word and still return 0. So this atleast cleared the plate of ideas a little.
Example: (“a”) 01100001 (“b”) 01100010 XORd ———— ------00000011 (not readable text but still not 1 in the first bit posistion)
 
So while XOR is still very viable for making text unreadable, it would not explain how our cipher texts have values with 1 in the first bit position. I even considered the text maybe being XOR’d with 935 in hex which would give a 1 value in the first bit posistion, but I think this would show a somewhat obvious pattern in binary. So heres where I am at now.
 
I strongly believe the hex is being rotated, again because of the distribution, but obviously something else is masking that. I hypothesis the encryption process is something along the lines of
plaintext -> hex encode -> keyword rotate -> Binary manip -> cipher text
 
I have tried a plethora of combinations which I will list down below and nothing, but I worry if this is not the order, we would almost never solve these. If the binary manip comes before the rotation or hex encode, we could rotate all day and never even know we are looking at signifiant text. I trust treyarch would not do this to us though after the motd ADFGX disaster lol. Even so, there are certain indicators we could even look for if this was the case though. For example if the binary was reversed and then rotated, we could check for a pattern of 0 in the eighth bit position every n blocks of binary in every rotation. Similarly we could do the same if the binary was inverted and then rotated, just in the 1st bits position looking for a 1’s pattern every n places. Needless to say I have tried this already and found nothing though :/
 
The other options to consider are that what we are looking at is not even supposed to be readable text but rather a number system for something. Like if every hex block was a page in a book and we took the first letter of each page. Not that I think this is it but it’s a possibility. The second is that some of these ciphers are not ciphers but rather keys. Again, we could just have to XOR the brazy hex with more brazy hex and that crazy hex could be another one of our ‘ciphers’. The third possibility is that we are reading the ciphers wrong and they need to be rearranged in like a columnar transposition, but I still don’t think this is the case because back to my original point, there would be a much larger amount of 6 and 7’s than other numbers. Also most of the encrypted texts end with 0d0a, or 13 10 which is the ASCII code for "enter" and those characters would not be next to each other if there was a transposition. Finally there could just a be a different method of evening the distribution of hex that I am just not thinking of, in which case I would greatly appreciate ideas lol. It’s always possible treyarch accidentally made these impossible which would suck but I have faith. Anyway if you are reading at this point thanks for reading this essay lol. I mostly just wanted to vent/write down everything Ive been trying and at least converse to someone about it.
 
Heres the list of things Ive tried. I mostly have been testing on sams_book, but I have tried most of the broader ideas on most the ciphers.
Attempted: *Converting to ASCII *Caesar shifting hex all 15 times then converting to ASCII *Reversing caesar shifted hex *Rotating pattern 115 *Xor the first several hex groups with every letter combination, no results. *Reversed hex Xor Brute, no results *Xor brute all caesar rotations, some results on the 10-13 roations, but nothing signify. *XOR rot 13: *Note: kRon returns hex, but sadly Kronorium does not return a readable phrase Binary: *Reversing the binary, Nothing *Reversing 1 half of the binary, left and right side, Nothing *NOT operation, Nothing *Reversing the hex, then NOT, or flipping binary, Nothing *Reversing the binary, then NOT *Shifting each bit of byte left all 7 times, nothing *vigenere checking all 7 rotations Making a string of only the characters that properly convert, nothing. Not vigenre, at least at this step. *reversing binary than vigenere, nothing *reversing text than vigenere, nothing *reversing each hex block, nothing *reversing each half of binary block binary, nothing *inverting binary, nothing *Vigenere then reverse binary analysis 
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Tutorial: Converting from characters to binary using ASCII ... ASCII Explained 2.8 ASCII Coding Scheme How to Enter ASCII Key Codes in Windows Display ASCII Value of Specified Character  Logical Programming in C  by Mr.Srinivas 5.Character to Binary Number in emu8086 ASCII Encoding Letters App Inventor: Binary Converter Gray code, ASCII Character Code Python Convert ASCII to char

ASCII character #5. Char ENQ - Enquiry. About ENQ. Integer ASCII code: 5: Binary code: 0000 0101: Octal code: 5: Hexadecimal code: 05: Group: control : Seq: ^E: Unicode symbol: ␅, int code: 9221 (html &#9221) hex code: 2405 (html &#x2405) Information. Enquiry is a signal, which has a purpose of initiating a response at the receiving end, in order to make sure that it's still available. Let's ... ASCII to hexadecimal,binary,decimal text converter. This website uses cookies to improve your experience, analyze traffic and display ads. i try this code and it gives me the special characters that i declare but i want to convert my special character into int "string pr = char.ConvertFromUtf32(186);" – confidential account Jan 18 at 2:19. 1. Be aware that 186 is not ASCII. ASCII is a 7-bit encoding and its maximum value is 127. – JC Olivares Jan 18 at 2:53. add a comment 2 Answers Active Oldest Votes. 3. The degree symbol ... ASCII Table - All ASCII codes and symbols with control characters explained, for easy reference - includes conversion tables, codepages and UNICODE, ANSI, EBCDIC and HTML codes . Control characters Control codes, C0 controls. Control Characters 1963 Historical Table . The following document lists the control characters in Ascii and in newer character code standards like Unicode™, which is ... Developer guide and reference for users of the 19.1 Intel® Fortran Compiler ASCII chart. The ASCII DEC Character Value. Quick conversion table for decimal, hexadecimal and binary values. Hi can anyone tell me how to convert decimal to ascii because i want to display the value. Get More than a Forex and CFD Trading Account at XM 01. Personal Account Best FX Service XM.COM is a trading name of Trading Point Holdings. 10.10.8 The Binary Character Set This section indicates which character sets MySQL supports. There is one subsection for each group of related character sets. ASCII ­ Binary Character Table Letter ASCII CodeBinary Letter ASCII CodeBinary a 097 01100001 A 065 01000001 b 098 01100010 B 066 01000010 c 099 01100011 C 067 01000011 d 100 01100100 D 068 01000100 e 101 01100101 E 069 01000101 f 102 01100110 F 070 01000110 g 103 01100111 G 071 01000111 h 104 01101000 H 072 01001000 i 105 01101001 I 073 01001001 j 106 01101010 J 074 01001010 k 107 01101011 K ... ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is a 7-bit character set that contains characters from 0 to 127. The generic term ANSI (American National Standards Institute) is used for 8-bit character sets. These character sets contain the unchanged ASCII character set. In addition, they contain further characters from 128 to 255 ... ASCII doesn't set any mechanism, the purpose of which would be a description of text structure or appearance within a document. Some other schemes, such as markup languages, address page and document layout and formatting. Only brief descriptive phrases were used for each of the control character of the original ASCII. This uncertainty wasn't ...

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Tutorial: Converting from characters to binary using ASCII ...

Python Convert ASCII to char python,convert,how to,string,int,bytes,integer,binary,decimal,Python 3,ascii,float programming,software,computer,developer,programmer. Display ASCII Value of Specified Character Logical Programming in C by Mr.Srinivas ** For Online Training Registration: https://goo.gl/r6kJbB Call: +91-8179191999 Subscribe to our channel and ... Working with ASCII Character Codes in Python 3 - Duration: 15:34. Kris DeBruine Media 31,124 views. 15:34. ... Representing Text in Binary (ASCII & Unicode) - Duration: 4:54. Computer Science ... Lecture CS - using the ASCII code table to represent letters with binary numbers. 5.Character to Binary Number in emu8086 ... Options Trading Basics EXPLAINED (For Beginners) - Duration: 20:13. projectoption 215,289 views. 20:13. Representing Numbers and Letters with Binary ... Characters in a computer - ASCII Tutorial (1/3) - Duration: ... ASCII code & UNI code By wishwas sir - Duration: 26:35. Dpsharma 335512 4,716 views. 26:35. Top 25 Excel 2016 Tips and Tricks ... AP Computer Science: Assignment 3 Zoe Baker Chaper1: Digital Systems & Binary Numbers Gray code, ASCII Character Code. Take user input, break it down into individual characters, convert those characters to an ASCII decimal value, then convert the decimal value to binary. Display the output in a scrollable table view. Characters, Symbols and the ... ASCII code - Duration: 8:48. Unacademy Live ... Binary Numbers and Base Systems as Fast as Possible - Duration: 5:20. Techquickie Recommended for you. 5:20 ...

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